Windbreak Hedges at the Coastline - South Madagascar
Androy region (South-Madagascar)
Category: sustainable agriculture -
The South of Madagascar is a semi-arid zone submitted to a dry and hot wind. The practice of agriculture there is difficult and the population is regularly subject to the risks of food insecurity. The windbreak hedges, at the level of the coastal zones, constitute a means of limiting the strengths of the wind which destroys crops and dig out arable soils. The FASARA project associates itself with farmers to find out the best combinations of species to be used, both to fight against the wind but and also to benefit from the various advantages offered by the properties of these species.Revised Short Version: Fighting the Tiokatimo Winds: Farmers Experiment - Windbreak Hedges
(in pdf-format - 090914)
1. Androy: a semi-arid region
The Androy region covers a zone of about 20 000 km² to the extreme South of Madagascar. It is a zone characterized by a semi-arid climate which is partly justifiable by the foehn phenomenon provoked by the "anosienne" Chain1. A violent wind coming from the South,called Tiokatimo also provokes drying up, erosion and sand dunes.
The scarcity of water is the particularity of this region: underground water most often brackish, low rainfall level and uncertain (between 300 and 600 mm per year), no river or permanent water ways.
The main economic activities of that enclaved region are agriculture (corn, cassava, sorghum, sweet potato) and husbandry. One can divide this region into three zones: a sedimentary zone in the South, an intermediate zone and a crystalline zone in the North of the region.
2. The sedimentary zone: a zone of high risk concerning desertification
Presentation of the zone
The sedimentary zone can be broken down into three main types of soil. white sands Soils, nearest to the beach, are especially poor and little cultivated. Climbing back up north, the reddish brown sand soils are rich, slightly eroded but at times charged with sand dunes. In some places more localized, one also finds soils with black clays sands that are rich and cultivated.
Vegetation, characterized by its endemicity and its fragility, is of the spiny bush type dominated by the Didieracéeses, the Euphorbia and the Apocynacéeses. The bocage style is commonly implemented by the inhabitants: hedges of cactus are planted around the plots essentially to delimit and to protect them against the straying of animals.
The indicators of desertification
The zone close to the sea that is the most exposed to desertification. The plots closed to the onshore dunes are subject to sand intake. Some quick dunes develop in localized manner. White sands soils get eroded leading to stony soils. Reddish brown sands soils are sand dunes loaded.
Causes of this situation
The climatic regime is the first cause of this situation.
The entropic exploitation modes of the soil also contributed to aggravate the phenomenon. The extension of agriculture on a limited space, decreases the resting time granted to the land via fallow, to regenerate. These fallows, where grows couch grass, cover crop, decrease whereas at the same time, the couch grass is more and more used to burn the prickly pear, one of the rare sources of fodder crops in the area. Also several factors contribute in limiting the coverage of the soils. Moreover, ploughing exposes the naked soil to wind and favours erosion.
The zone most close to the sea experiences a sort of vicious circle of desertification. With the apparition of plow in the years 60, it was the one that has been cleared and cultivated first. Currently, because of the poor fertility of its soil and the decline of transhumance in the rest of the region, it is used more specifically for grazing. It is therefore also particularly concerning, in dry season, by the use of cactus hedges to feed the livestock, which increases the exposure of soil to wind and desertification.
General objective: To improve food security in Androy
Specific objective: To attenuate the erosive and drying effect of dominant winds of south East on soils and crops (objective of the component)
Activities: setting up of windbreak hedges
The windbreak hedges are put in place around the crops plots. In the beginning, implanted alongside the contiguous plots, they are henceforth put in place around the individual plots because that operation requiring the coordination of different land owners was difficult.
The everlastingness of the hedge is supposed to be linked to the interest of its different uses for the farmer. That is why it was chosen to install the hedges mixing different species with different functions, each of it having, at a minimum, to assure a good protection against wind.
Implementation and achievements
Choice of varieties:
The first years constituted a phase of test for the choice of species. Today, the hedges are constituted of: Pithecolobium dulce (advantageous for fodder, fire wood, construction wood, eatable fruit, shade), Acacia auriculoformis (advantageous for fodder, construction wood, eatable fruit, shade), Jatropha curcas (advantageous for oil production , soap), Parkisonia aculeata, Varo (advantageous for construction wood, shade), Ziziphus (advantageous for fodder, firewood, construction wood, eatable fruit, shade) and Anacardium (eatable fruit).
The hedges present different interests according to the used species. They can provide biomass for a direct seedling agriculture under plant coverage, but also of eatable products (listed) and of wood, etc.
The tests led to put aside some species. Among them: Tamarindus indica, Morenga oleifera, Jatropha mahafaliensis, Casuarinas, Albizzia, The Morenga is not bearing leaves during the period when winds are strong. The growth of the Tamarindus is slow. The Albizzia is difficult to cultivate in nursery…
Two rows of trees are planted in staggered rows at one meter distance from each other. In the phase of growth, the trees need protection. This is testified by the high death rate of trees (50% every year). It appeared therefore necessary, in the first stage, to double those hedges with hedges of cactus acting like a protective strip during growth. Because of their spiny character, the cactuses associated to the hedges also permit the protection of the crops against the straying of animals.
The mils or cajanus are other protective strips that present interests. They have the particularity to have an agricultural use. The mil is annual; it must therefore be implanted according to the periods of violent wind to play its protective role. Mil and cajanus are eatable and possess the property to improve soil fertility. Their limits reside in the availability in seed for farmers.
The hedge must make obstacle to dominant winds that blow during the months of August and September from the Southeast.
Organization of the supply and monitoring
The implementation of this activity is achieved by a team of 8 animators installed in different points of the intervention zone. The FASARA project gets its stock from two associations of nursery women formed initially by South Objective (Ampela mitraoke, Vehivavy mianala).
The plants are provided to individual farmers who wished to take part in the experience. At first carried out in all the councils of the project intervention zone, that activity was reduced to 6 councils, at the rate of 2 to 4 fokontany per council, in order to concentrate the experience in a more reduced zone and to get more visible results.
The Support Program to the Agricultural Networks and of Improvement of Food Security in the Androy Region (FASARA) is put into implementation in the Androy region by the Group of Research and Technological exchanges (GRET) since December 2005 and until the end of the month of May 2009. This project, financed by the European Union, comes in the continuation and the extension of the activities of agricultural component of the project «South Objective ". One of the activities of the FASARA project consists in promoting the development of windbreak hedges.
Distance of hedges planted 2006-2007: 45 km
Distance of hedges planted 2007-2008: 40 km representing 41573 plantations
These results remain limited because the farmers of the area are not yet convinced of the interest of this practice, whereas it is expensive in time of work. The results still lack visibility.
The combining of the plantation of the hedges with other farmers' activities is not obvious. Because of the low rainfall, the farmers privilege, during rainfall, the cultivation of their farms at the detriment of the plantation of windbreak hedges.
It is important to maintain the plantation of hedges when there are rains but also to minimize as much as possible the efforts required so that they can fully dedicate themselves to their crops: to organize the digging of holes in periods of low activity for example.
Articles et publications:
Cailleux M., Deligne A., Richard D., Rapport d’activité du projet FASARA, Décembre 2005 – Août 2007, Document technique, GRET, 79 pages.
Anatole RASAMILALA, Note technique sorgho, Novembre 2007, GRET, 20 pages.
Projet FASARA BP 01, Ambovombe (604), Province de Toliara, Madagascar
Tel: 00-261-321100809 , Email : email@example.comRevised Short Version: Fighting the Tiokatimo Winds: Farmers Experiment - Windbreak Hedges
(in pdf-format - 090914)
(duZvZdAWtfrukRFTfIo @ 2013-04-15 09:54:46)
I’ve read many of the great suggestions that the others have provided. I have a few of my own. Unfortunately I have been unable to attend the sessions, timing, busy with three young children. However, I definitely wanted to share a few ideas on this site in the hopes that they may be read by others. Both my husband and I were born and raised here. We both went away to earn our educations and then returned to Timmins. Timmins is a great place BUT it can be an even better place. I would first like to say that it’s wonderful that young students can obtain some degrees and diplomas at either Northern College, College Boreal or through Laurentian at the Northern College Campus. However, Timmins needs to advocate and have serious considerations on how to bring a University Campus to Timmins. I’m not talking a satelite campus but an actual university. It’s a huge undertaking but how can this city keep youth here and attract youth to this city for the future??? I agree that continuing to beautify and bring outdoor attractions and recreational facilities to the city will make the city more attractive to everyone. We need to think outside the box and ask ourselves “what will bring people here”, “what will keep people here” and “what will make our city continue to grow and prosper?” I’m amazed that I haven’t heard anything about an aggressive committee already working on how they will work aggressively and diligently on competing for the location for the “Ring of Fire processing plan”. Who’s working on this? Is anyone working on this? Why is it that the public doesn’t here anything until it’s too late and the project has gone elsewhere? I recently watched the news from North Bay and they have undertaken a huge project on energy production from their garbage. Why can’t we do that? It’s an investment but one that pays off! Someone earlier suggested that solar panels be put on more traffic lights. These are ideas that save money, save our planet and think about the future. I was happy to hear that they will be investigating uses for the Shania Twain Centre. A facility which would house the Orchestra or other concerts or music schools and theatre could be potential uses for the building. It would require expansion but think of the theatre festivals, concerts, and other events that could happen there or be attracted to the city. In addition to the ideas that I’ve provided I feel that each individual in the city should have a vote in each councillor position in the city. The ward system should be eliminated and the citizens should be able to vote for all the positions during an election. Suggestions by citizens should be accepted publicly all the time not just a vision meeting blitz. There should be times alotted during each council meeting in the city where they publicly take suggestions from residents on how to make Timmins a better place and their responses should be made publicly. There needs to be more transparency in good and BAD choices, the people of the city have a right to know. I believe that the recent suggestions on making the city an 8-80 city are important but finding a balance is important because what keeps an 80 year old here and what will attract an 18 or 28 year old professional are not the same!!!! My children recently commented as we passed Grants, “mommy what’s that building and why is nobody there?” I didn’t know how to answer that but it made me sad “such a big facility and forestry was such a huge part of the city, there has to be something they can do with the faciltiy even if a retrofit was required and an investment. What could possibly be produced there?” I am fortunate to work as a health professional at the hospital and am proud to say that our facility continually looks at how we can grow each program and expand the services we provide to the people of Timmins and the surrounding area. Why can’t the same growth occur in each sector of the community? We keep going to outside organizations to study and figure out our problems. There must be people within our community who are capable of doing so!!!! I’m sure there are grants, various fundings and monies available to apply for that could go to the city. Does the city have someone that investigates funding and grants available? It should at least be made easy for groups and organizations to find these grants and funding. Can there be something available on the TEDC or city websites that contains grants and funding available that groups, businesses and organizations can apply for? Timmins should be advocating to make the city smoke-free! Many cities have why can’t we. I was at the park with my kids and there in front of us was an adult smoking despite all the kids around. Whenever I can politely make it obvious that they should be doing so I will but I think the city needs to push for a “Smoke Free Timmins” not smoking cessation because that’s just a bandaid. Making Timmins a smoke-free place makes it more attractive for the majority.
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(DUPCZgKwoBE @ 2013-04-14 09:23:16)
you should probably first learn one thing about the world: it's not black and white but many shades of grey. You wrote all the BS in your comment w/o accepting the fact that different people have different usage scenarios for email. I think I'm intelligent enough to decide whether I want to delete or archive an email. Believe me: I receive emails that I do not intend to keep as I and Adam wrote before. Why is that so hard to believe AND accept???And yes, I'm an Outlook user - as I happen to work for a pretty big company (50K+ employees). I don't like it but this shouldn't render me a worse human than you.I'm happy for you that you can get through your email without any organization just by using search. I can't do that and that's why I use labels. Now reading that I may be a lesser valued human than you as I clearly don't have the brain capacity you have...Sarcasm put to the side: RaslDasl and all the other perfect Gmail users, please accept that there's no one and only way of using Gmail. We want an option. If you don't want to use it, feel free to do that - but don't tell us that we're not supposed to do this or that.
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(fPUFIslZoNPpuRFNy @ 2013-04-09 09:52:51)
it), something that we can be proud of. Something the Chamber tourism staff can tell a person to go see that walks into the office from Poland and wants to do something in Timmins for three days. This was is hard I know.What can we do to revive the forestry industry. The mills are there, the workers are there, the wood is there.Hollinger Park, Pavillion and water park is AMAZING! What a beautiful city park. Grand stands may have to be looked at sometime soon.The TSO, what a beautiful group. I am extremely proud of them.Civic Pride day!Congratulations to the 100th anniversary committee, the celebrations have been appropriate.The new Museum, will be fantastic. Karen and Chris certainly have their work cut out for them in the next little while but it seems to be shaping up to become something that will honour our heritage.The TEDC has become a vital part of our business community. Their services and programs are really great. I think that many young people are exploring entrepreneurship because of the assistance and promotion of the TEDC. I think that as the baby boomers hand over the reigns of some of the local businesses that the YPs will continue to require the assistance and expertise of the TEDC. In summary, keep funding the TEDC.As far as education goes, if we want English speaking youth to stick around we do need an English university. Why not use the satellite model that UniversitÃ© de Hearst has been using for the past 15+ years?The Northern College expansion is amazing.It would be nice if we could amalgamate the South Porcupine Winter Carnival with the LaRonce Carnaval to have one big one. Let’s celebrate together and have one big February bash!The new CollÃ¨ge BorÃ©al is beautiful.Leisure services is very important to the residents of our city. From touch football, to soccer, to marathons etc… I think what we are lacking is the communications of what is available in our City. Two years ago, there was the first leisure services booklet produce that showed in pictures and in writing the amazing leisure opportunities in the City. I think we need to take a look at that booklet and build upon it and continue to release one of those year after year. Or on the web as well that is fine as long as everything is in there like coin club, Cadets, model plain club, ski runners, Kamiscotia, golfing etc…HOCKEY – We are truthfully a HOCKEY town in Timmins. I know there is talk of closing an arena. I know that user fees have been raised and will continue to be raised until 2013. I don’t have all of the solutions but I do know that whatever must be done to keep hockey vibrant in our City must be done. Having three hockey associations in one community is ridiculous and it creates massive conflicts and prevents a proper schedule from being released. If we had one associations and we worked closely with the City perhaps we could come to the conclusion that 4 pads would work for all organized and recreational hockey, ringette and figure skating in Timmins, I am not sure. But I do know that we have to work together. If hockey becomes too expensive and registrations continue to decline not only because of a change in population but because of $ that would be absolutely awful as hockey is extremely important to Timmins.Infrastructure. I find that the City has been VERY GOOD at keeping the pulse of the traffic and roads in Timmins. Sure we have our pot holes but we also have a massive land wise city. The streets are clean, our snow removal is 2nd to none, we are in good shape. Do we remember when there was no turning lane from Algonquin onto 655 or from Algonquin to ThÃ©riault Boulevard? Lights on ThÃ©riault great! Advanced green on Shirley/Riverside and other places great. The lights are timed and traffic flows nicely in Timmins. Anyways I think this is under control.Our hospital is absolutely amazing. I personally have never waited longer than 15 minutes (knock on wood) the last two times I have been in the emerg. The hospital is well run and I am proud of its look, reputation, track record and services.EVENTS – Everyone says we need more. The City has been making efforts towards that and it has been great! The Kayak challenge, the 100th efforts, the Santa Parade, the Fireworks, this summer’s Urban Park (BIA), the Nova Awards (Chamber), the Concert series etc…. We have been much better in this area and organizations continue to invent new Events and build upon old one’s. (Sass in the city, RibFest, home Show, sportsman show, craft show, etc….)Garbage in our city is really well run. Kudos on the new system coming which will make things really convenient for residents and will save money. The landfill is extremely well run and clean and congrats on the scales.Downtown has been slowly improving over the last decade. With the subsidies for face lifts many businesses look great. The revitalization project has been moving forward step by step. Moving the transit SUPER IDEA, congrats. The downtown BIA has very vibrant staff at the moment and idea like the Urban Park – Farmer’s Market are great and are simply another step towards getting the downtown to where everyone envisions it. Congrats keep up the good work!Groups like the Timmins Young Professionals and the PUWs GenNext are amazing new initiatives.Beautification, of course more can always be done but seriously, I find our city clean and presentable. The flowers are always a nice touch. Honestly though, let’s get the wreath off of our most important landmark, the headframe, it looks awful with it on there. Otherwise I am satisfied with the look of our city. We have many beautiful buildings and projects like the community garden are amazing. Timmins get clean and other initiative like high school city clean ups has made a huge difference as far as beautification goes. I wonder if we could pull off a 2 hours city wide clean up where all schools, all businesses, all City workers, all government employees, etc… agree to go outside and EVERYONE cleans-up for 2 full hours. That would be amazing. We could stop city buses, stop everything shut doors and go clean. Wonder if it would work? Could be done on April 22nd, earth day. Could be a big media coverage thing for our city, showing the example, maybe even National news. Rick would certainly be happy.I would really like to sit down and explore the idea of ward system vs the committee system. I have heard too many times that the was system is antiquated and that a committee system would be more effective for our City.Tourism. We have lots to offer but unfortunately I can’t remember when we have had an appropriate booklet or map to give to tourist. Take a quick look at the OWR tourism magazine and website. I think we need to follow their model, their inspiration and get something decent produced to provide to tourist. We seem to rely on the Chamber to produce tourism material. Let’s take the 101 things to do in Timmins flier and make it into a nice booklet or magazine with a bunch of pictures. I believe that some clean-up and organization in this area is much needed. There is much to do, show me!Heritage, we are good hands. We are good at naming buildings, parks, airports and events after important past residents. Once the new location of the museum is up and running I think we will be proud of it. The look back into the past segments in the Daily Press our fantastic. The 100th website is really nice. GOOD WORK!Telecommunications. I believe that the City of Timmins should attempt to be ahead of the curb on this issue. I believe that the City should partner with NEOnet Inc. and the local providers to set a goal of 10Mps rate of high speed internet by 2015 for the City of TimminsSnow removal in our City works like clockwork. No change required.The trail system in Timmins is really well done! However, we need to promote it more. The old timminsoutdoors.ca site is dated and the Chamber trail system brochure is a couple years old. Furthermore, the Conservation trail maps are also a bit dated. It would be nice to have arial shots of the trails or google earth type shots in a nice package. Let’s promote this trail system that can bring you pretty much in and around the entire City!There is a lack of a non-profit, social services Directory. The old yellow 2007 volunteer timmins Directory was an extremely helpful tool. I am not sure who can do it, but it would be really nice to have an up to date directory online. Ex: I move to town, I want to join Cadets, or toastmasters, or playing card club or the bridge club or the singles club, where do I find this information. Leisure services has a list that has been photocopied over and over and is a bit dated I believe. We need something better. People say there is nothing to do but I don’t believe that is the fact I believe it is simply the fact that there is a lack of communications of what there is to do. This would go hand in hand with the central community calendar idea.Cultural clubs are fantastic in Timmins. Whatever can be done to continue to support the Dante Club, LaRonde, the Polish club and others should be done.Real Estate prices are affordable here in my opinion.Water is good and reasonably priced. I have never had an issue with the quality of water and supply of water coming from the taps.I wonder if we could get Porter Airlines to come to Timmins, so there is at least some competition and perhaps that would lower pricesw.I think we need to be better marketing (REAL INNOVATIVE MARKETING) ourselves as the regional shopping centre. Ex; Could we not provide a free night’s stay in Timmins for any resident from North Eastern Ontario or the coast if they can prove they spent more than $500 during their stay (might be a bad example but I am talking about packages, deals etc…) Something that would make them come more often. Let’s promote, Canadian Tire, Home Depot, Micheal’s, WalMart, Timmins Square, 101 Mall, downtown, Hollinger Court, Park Road Square etc…. Put in all in one nice brochure or page on the City website. Make it looks inviting. Shop local campaign can go hand and hand.Anyways, I apparently have lots to say I will try and take in as many sessions as possible. I love Timmins, I have always lived here and I plan living here all my life. I think we have done great things here in the last 20 years, I think we are in a good position and I am happy that we are taking the time to put together a plan to make our City even better in the next decade.
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